Friday, April 10, 2009

B A Programme English II, Second Year, Delhi University

B.A. (Prog.) IInd Year, English II (A)

for those who have english subjects till class 12th

हिन्दी अनुवाद के साथ

  1. Learning to Write -
  2. Learning can be Fun
  3. Billy Elliot is My Story, Only Less Happy
  4. If I Return This Time
  5. Learning To Write (Editing)
  6. A Mother's Decision
  7. Sole Provider, Lonely (अकेला) Warrior (योद्धा, सिपाही)
  8. Pholiographing (फोटोग्राफी सम्बन्धी) Mother
  9. What Makes Good Writing Good
  10. Our Muddledad Generation
  11. The LEader of Man
  12. Writing for Examinations
  13. The End of a Yuga
  14. Maniben Alias Bibijan
  15. Her Name is Bharti
  1. Comprehension - (धारणा, समावेश, व्यापकता, परिज्ञान, बोध, समझ, अवधारणा, समझ बूझ)
  2. Grammer - Use of Article (a, an, the); Use of Nouns (संज्ञा); Use of Pronouns (सर्वनाम); Use of Adjective (गुण वाचक शब्द, विशेषण); Use of Verb (क्रिया); Use of Adverbs (क्रिया विशेषण) कुछ उदहारण के लिए यहाँ क्लिक करें ; Use of Prepositions (पूर्वसर्ग); Use of Conjunction (समुच्यबोधक) कनजंकशंस की प्रक्टिस के लिए यहाँ क्लिक करें Click Here;
  3. Vocabulary - Antonyms (विपरीतार्थक शब्द); Important Antonyms; Homophones (विस्तार के लिए यहाँ क्लिक करें )
  4. General Rules Regarding Letter Writing- Parts of Letter; Informal Letters, Formal Letters;
  5. Essays -
    Television and Teenage Violence For Details Click Here ;
    The Population Problem; for details or essay click here ;
    The Contribution of Students in National Building;
    The Position of Women (2007);
    United We Stnd, Divided We fall;
    Terrorism; For Details Click Here ;
    Future of English Language in India;
    The Problem of Price Rising; E-Commerce;
    India's Most Pressing Problems;
    Child Labour;
    My Likes and Dislikes;
    Metro Applications Today;
    The Choice of a Profesiona;
    Wonders of Science; Pollution;
    The Value of Gamesand Sports,
    Merits and Demerits of the India and Internet;
    The drie Necessity of Computerisation;
    Non-Conventional Energy Sources;
    The Problem of Indispline Among Students;
    Importance of Discipline in Life, Criminialisation in Politics;
    Capital Punishment;
    Protection of human rights;
    Economic Liberalisation;
    Student and Politics;
    Black Money;
    The Information Technology Revolution;
    Cyber Criminals;
    Youth and Drugs;
    Religion and Science;
    The Corruption Menace;
    Reservation Re-defined;
    India's Space Programme;
    The Generation Gap.

LESSON - 1 (Learning to Write)

(a) Writing is perhaps the most difficult of all the most difficult of all the language skills, Even seasoned (experienced) writers have to make drafts of what they wish to convey before they are satisfied. Most of us are simply scared of pen and paper yet, there is not getting away from writing. Whether we want to remember, convey, or correct something, it is best to put it down in black and white. Anyone who can write is looked upon with respect in our society.
लेखन कला शायद अन्य समस्त भाषाई कुशलताओं में सर्वाधिक कठिन है । अनुभवी परिपक्व लेखकों को भी उस बात का, जिसको कि वे व्यक्त करना चाहते हैं - प्रारूप तयार करना पड़ता है, तब जाकर उन्हें संतोष होता है ; हममें से अधिकांश लोग कलम और कागज़ से भयभीत होते हैं, फिर भी लेखन कार्य से छुटकारा सम्भव नही है । जब भी हम किसी बात को स्मरण रखना चाहते हैं, दूसरो तक पहुँचाना चाहते हैं अथवा किसी चीज़ में सुधर करना चाहते हैं, उसे कागज़ पर लिख लेना ही सर्वोत्तम है । जो व्यक्ति लिखने में निपुण हैं, उनको समाज में सम्मान मिलता है ।

(b) If you want to apply for a job, you must write out your curriculum vitae as well as a covering letter. Now-a-days recruitment agencies prefer that applicants wrote an essay in their own handwriting because it is believed that writing reveals your true personality traits, such as sincerity, commitment, attitude and social responsibility. In fact, handwriting is as individual as fingerprints.
यदि आप किसी नौकरी के लिए आवेदन पत्र भेजना चाहते हैं तो आपको अपनी शैक्षिक योग्यता तथा उसके साथ एक आवरण पत्र भी लिखना होता है । आजकल चयनकर्ता संस्थयें यह बात अधिक पसंद करती हैं कि आवेदक अपने हाथ से एक निबंध लिखे क्यौंकी यहाँ माना जाता है की हस्तलेख आपके वास्तविक व्यक्तिगत गुणों, जैसे किंदारी, प्रतिबधता, दृष्टिकोण तथा सामाजिक उत्तरदायित्व को अनावृत (प्रकट) कर देता है । वास्तव में हस्तलेख उतना ही व्यक्तिगत या प्रथक अस्तित्व रखता है जितना की अँगुलियों की छाप ।
(3) Yet, instruction in writing has generally consisted of providing students with models of good writing and letting them muddle (make way 'confuse state of mind - मार्ग निर्माण करना, भ्रमित करना / होना, दीमाग भ्रम में होना) their way through. This is a long and tedious (थकाने वाला, धीमा, कठिन) process and students are generally left to their own devices. Teachers only perform the task of 'correcting' and 'grading'. Some of the students gamely struggle on, but most just drop by the wayside (किनारे हो जन, रस्ते से भटक जाना, त्याग देना).
तथापि लेखन में निर्देश में सामान्यतः यह निहित होता है - छात्रों को श्रेष्ठ लेखन के नमूने सुलभ करा देना तथा फिर उन्हें अपना मार्ग खोजने देना । यह मार्ग लंबा तथा दुष्कर प्रक्रिया है तथा प्रायः छात्रों को अपनी ही नियुक्ति के सहारे छोड़ दिया जाता है । अध्यापक तो मात्र उनकी त्रुटियों सुधारने तथा उन्हें अंक या श्रेणी देने का कार्य करते हैं।
कुछेक छात्र स्वयं संघर्ष करते हुए आगे बढ़ जाते हैं लेकिन कुछ मार्ग से हट जाते हैं। अथवा पीछे छुट जाते हैं ।
(4) First of all, most of us think we know our feelings, ideas and subject, but it is only when we sit down to write that we relize how muddled (अस्पष्ट) our thoughts are, so, in a very important sense, free writing helps us clarify our thoughts, In addition, when we write for ourselves and not to please, imress, or convince others, we tend to be more honest and open.
सर्वप्रथम, हममें से अधिकांश लोग सोचते हैं कि हम अपनी भावनाओं को विचारों को तथा विषय को भली-भांति जानते हैं, पर जब हम उन्हें लिखने या लिपिबद्ध करने बैठते हैं, तो हम यह अहसास करते हैं कि हमारे विचार कितने अस्पष्ट हैं । इसीलिए एक महत्वपूर्ण दृष्टी से मुक्त लेखन हमे अपने ही विचारों को स्पष्ट रूप से समझने में सहायक होता है । इसके अतिरिक्त, जब हम अपने लिए ही लिखते हैं, किसी को खुश करने, प्रभावित करने अथवा उसे आश्वस्त करने के लिए नही लिखते तो हम स्वाभाविक रूप से अधिक इमानदार और स्पष्टवादी बनने कि और प्रवृत हो जाते हैं।

LESSON - 2 (Learning can be Fun)
(1) The time we realised that an average child is not interested in all of these subjects. We have to come across a child who is not happy to get a 'free period'. When childredn are coaxed (फुसलाया जाता है) graded, and forced into learning they turn out to be indifferent scholars who scrape through school and college and become dull office workers, uncreative teachers, medicore engineers, and unimaginative factory managers.
यहाँ समाया आ गया है कि हम महसूस करें कि औसतन बच्चे को इन समस्त विषयों में कोई रूचि नही होती। हमें ऐसा कोई बच्चा नही मिलेगा जो खली पीरिअड मिलने पर हर्षित न हो जाये। जब बच्चों को पढने के लिए फुसलाया, आगे धकेला या धमकाया जाता है तो वे ऐसे उदासीन अध्यानकर्ता बन जाते हैं जो किसी प्रकार से शिक्षा पुरी कर लेते हैं, तथा जीवन में वे घटिया आफिसर, रचनात्मकता से रहित शिक्षक, औसत श्रेणी के इंजिनियर तथा कल्पनाराहित कारखाना प्रबंधक बन जाते हैं ।
(2) There is a mistaken notion (thinking) that learning takes place only within a structured school framework. Unschooled people like tribals (आदिवासी) have more knowledge about plant life, herbs, trees, animal behaviour and so on than the botanist (वनस्पतिशास्त्री ) or zoologist (प्राणी शास्त्री) . Illitrate village folks (स्थानीय लोग) have immense knowledge about growing crops, domesticating animals, weaving and house building. Children in such societies acquire the skills and knowledge for survival by observing and participating in these activities.
यह एक ग़लत धारणा है कि शिक्षा केवल विद्यालयों कि सरंचना अर्थात भवन में नियमों से बांधकर ही हो सकती है । अशिक्षित लोग जैसे आदिवासी लोगों को पौधे, जडी बूटीयों, पशुओं के व्यवहार आदि के बारे में किसी भी वनस्पति शास्त्री अथवा जीव विज्ञान शास्त्री से अधिक जानकारी होती है । अनपढ़ गाँव वालों के पास भी फसल उगने, पशु पालन, वस्त्र बुनने तथा घर निर्माण कि अच्छी जानकारी होती है । ऐसे समाजों में बच्चे इस प्रकार के कामों को देखकर तथा उनके प्रतिभागी बनकर जीने कि कला के बारे में कुशलता एवं ज्ञान प्राप्त कर लेते हैं।
(3) Today's students know a lot. One has to just look at the quiz competitions. But they understand little and feel much less. They have mastered the art of debating (वाद विवाद प्रतियोगिता), declaiming (बखान करना, भाषण देना) and recting on a variety of usual ranging from communalism (साम्प्रादाईक्ता) & gender justice (लैंगिक अधिकार), nuclear disarmament (निःशस्त्रीकरण) , and ozone depletion (reduction, क्षरण या क्षतिहोना). But once they are off stage, they stop carring about the issue they just debated.
आज के छात्र बहुत अधिक जानते हैं । जरा प्रश्नोत्तर स्पर्धाओं को देखिये । पर वे अत्यल्प समझते है और महसूस बहुत कम करते हैं । उन्हें वाद विवाद कला पर स्वामित्व प्राप्त कर लिया है, वे किसी विषय पर जोरदार भाषण दे सकते हैं, अनेक विषयों पर बोल सकते हैं, जैसे सम्प्रदियाकता, महिलाओं के सामन अधिकार (लिंगवाद), परमाणु शास्त्रों पर रोक, और ओजोन में आई खराबिओं पर, लेकिन जैसे ही वे मंच से उतरते हैं वे इस विषय के सम्बन्ध में परवाह करना बंद कर देते हैं जिस पर उन्हों ने अभी अभी वाद विवाद किया था ।
(4) Learning is a process - sometimes tedious, sometimes exciting, sometimes frustating and sometimes fulfilling. But today we are in amad rush to reach the top, to suceed, to leave others behind. Schools, as a microcosm (सूक्षम आधार) of society, are also cought in the competition. They compete with each other for more medals, more trophies and more recognition. The casualty of such competition is children learning.
सीखना या शिक्षा ग्रहण करना ऐसी प्रक्रिया है जो कभी
ष्टदायक होती है तो कभी उतेजित करने वाली, कभी निराश करने वाली तो कभी सफलता कि खुशी देने वाली। पर आजकल हम लोग सफल होने व अन्यों को पीछे छोड़ कर शिखर पर पहुँचने कि पागलपन से पूर्ण स्पर्धा में जुटे हुए हैं । स्कूल भी जो कि समाज का सूक्षम आधार हैं, इस स्पर्धा में फंस गए हैं । वे अधिकाधिक तमगों तथा विजयोपहरों को पाने व अधिक पहचान बनाने के लिए परस्पर प्रतिस्पर्धा कर रहे हैं। इस स्पर्धा में सर्वाधिक नुक्सान बच्चों के सीखने कि प्रक्रिया को होता है ।
However, the process of doing - writing an essay or printing a portrait - is more important. The frustation of not getting it the way you want, the ability to overcome an obstacle, the joy of discovery, and the confidence of being in control, we rob (deny, वंचित करना) our children of all these experiences by doing their work for them. We forget that making a mistake is a natural part of learning.
तथापि काम करने की प्रक्रिया - निबंध लेखन अपना चित्र बनाना - अधिक महत्तवपूर्ण है । किसी भी काम को अपनी आकांक्षा के अनुसार न कर पाने पर क्षोभ, या किसी भी बाधा को पार करने की क्षमता, या किसी नई चीज़ खोजने कि खुशी तथा स्तिथि पर नियंत्रण पा लेने से उत्पन्न विश्वास - हम अपने बच्चों को इन सभी अनुभवों से वंचित कर देता हैं क्यूंकी हम उनका काम स्वयम मर देता हैं । हम भूल जाते हैं की गलती करना सिखने कि प्रक्रिया का एक स्वाभाविक भाग है।
Language and communication are something that children learn by talking to one-another. But schools consider this an act of













Thursday, May 29, 2008

Delhi University English - 1A (First, Second, Third Yr) Notes

My Personal Notes
NOTE : Please refer your books & syllabus (I strictly want to tell that these are my/our personal notes, i/we are not responsible for any mistake), Thanks.
Compulsory Language Courese
ENGLISH BOOK UNIT 1-18 (Fluency in English)

UNIT ____LESSON __________________________ Author

  1. Inz Lets Things Flow Over Him ............................................ Kadambri Murali
  2. It's Only a Game, Enjoy .......................................................... Tarun J. Tejpal
  3. Haroun and the Sea of Stories ............................................... Salman Rushdie
  4. Girls .......................................................................................... Mrinal Pande
  5. Sisters ....................................................................................... Saleem Peeradina
  6. A Ten Day Fast ........................................................................ Harishankar Parsai
  7. Go, Kiss the World .................................................................. Subroto Bagchi
  8. Amalkanti ............................................................................... Nirendranath Chakrabarti
  9. Hitting Dowry for a Six .......................................................... Kalpna Sharma
  10. Chocolate ................................................................................ Manju Kapur
  11. A Gandian in Garhwal : Chandi Prasad Bhatt.......................... Ramchandra Guha
  12. To Mother................................................................................ S. Usha
  13. Lost and Found : Bengal's Bose ............................................... Mihir Bose
  14. Soapnut Leaves (रीठा की पत्तियां) .............................................. Chaaso
  15. The Lost Word ....................................................................... Esther Morgan
  16. Lambo to the Slaughter(वध / हत्या) .................................... Roald Dah
  17. Some People ........................................................................... Rita Ann Higins
  18. Routes and Escape Routes ................................................... Datta Bhagat


(to see the video of this match click here or click on this link : .

Introduction to the Author : Here is an account of the Pakistan skipper (कप्तान, दल का नेता) from the view point of his boyhood friend Mujtaba, the son of a barber. He tell us how Inzamam was first noted by Imran Khan and invited to Lahore. Inzamam even when he was on top, showed the old time warmth (जोश, उत्साह) to Mujtaba. Time has passed since those days of his glory.

SUMMARY : A human tale of two friends : This article tells the story of a Pakistani cricket player from the view point (दृष्टिकोण) of his friend. Thus it is the story of two friends , their friendship has lasted for nearly 20 years. The two friends are Ghulam Mujtaba and Inzamam-ul Haq. Both were the natives (देशवासी, मूल निवासी) of Multan in Pakistan. They were fast friends. But with the passage of time Inzamam gained status and money as the skipper (कप्तान) of Pakistan team. Mujtaba was left far behind. He could only watch his friend with pride.

  • The long lasting friendship formed at the very first meeting : Mujtaba was 16-17 when he was introduced to Inzamam by Mujtaba's elder brother at their father's barber shop. Inzamam was younger. He was very shy (शर्मीला). But he as a regular visitor at the narrator's house. He (Inzamam) used to make omelet's while Mujtaba made the rotis. They would & talk. sometimes all night. Mujtaba's father ran a hairdressing saloon in a hotel.
    Inzamam's fahther - Pir Intizam-ul-Haq was Multan's big spiritual leader. Often Mujtaba and Inzamam kept awake all night. at daybreak they went straight for the first namaz of the day. Pir Sahab was surprised to see them there so early.
  • Inzamam's cricket skill spotted by Imran Khan : Inzamam spend most of the day at the Multan stadium practicing with his bat. It so happened that once Imran Khan saw the young boy. He noticed the talent in Inzamam. He invited him to Lahore. Inzamam went and joined Lahore club.
  • Inzamam's brilliant performance at the World Cup : Inzamam selected for the 1992 World Cup. His performance at the semi-final against New Zealand was very remarkable although he had come straight from hospital. He had had some sort of food poisoning. He shared the credit for World Cup win.
  • Rousing reception of the hero, Only Mujtaba left back :Inzamam became sports hero & Pakistani Icon, Super Star. Hundred fans came out at the airport to receive the skipper. Mujtaba did't go, he asn't sure of being recognised by his old time friend. But when the motorcade carrying Inzamam was passing the shop, he got off to meet his friend. They travelled the rest of the way together. Success and fame didn't bring about any change in the young hero. Infact, it was his nature to remain unaffected (सहज) by criticism (आलोचना) or praise (तारीफ़, पर्शंसा).
  • Match Fixing allegation (आरोप) against Inzamam : Inzamam passed through a bad phase of life. He was charged with match-fixing. He fell from grace (इज्जत खो जाना). The earlier days of glory (यश) have passed. On Friday morning, he still come down to Mujtaba's house for breakfast. The two meet as good old friends. As Inzamam leaves for practice at the nets, Mujtaba escorts (पहेरेदारी पूर्वक ोड़ कर आना) his wife and children home.
  • Q.1. Who does the article tell us more about, Inzamam or Mujtaba ? Who are you more interested in ? Why ?
  • Ans1. : The article tells us more about Inzamam who became a super sports star, and skipper of Pakistani Cricket team. He wasz a friend of Mujtaba, the son of barber. He did not forget his boyhood friend. Mujtaba is a great admirer of Inzamam. I am more interested in Inzamam, the national hero, rather than a poor barber (but if the friendship is concern both are interesting because they never forget their friendship at all) जहाँ तकदोस्ती का सवाल है तो मुझे दोनों पर नाज़ है क्योंकी दोनों ने दोस्ती मी दारार नही आने दी
  • Q.2 Make a list of qualities (like the one given above) that you think could be used to described Mujtaba, based on information suggestion given in the article. Do you find that some qualities are contradictory (असंगत, विपरीत, अन्तरविरोधी) ? How can you re-correct them ?
  • Ans.2 Ghulam Mujtaba was the son of a barber who has his shop in a Multan Hotel. His brother introduced him to Inzamam, and he took instant liking for the boy. The two become fast friends. They spent a lot of time together, eating and talking. Inzamam left for Lahore and he proved his merit (गुण, योग्यता, खूबी) as a cricketer. He became one of Pakistan's Icon (सितारा, मूर्ति, प्रतिरूप) a super star. But Mujataba had one consolation (आश्वासन, दिलासा, सांत्वना). His friendship did not even cool (ठंडी नही पड़ी) of even off win though Inzamam had gone up in status and money. He a felt proud of his friend and extended a warm welcome when Inzamam came back to Multan. He became a family friend. He became emotional both when he saw his friend off for Lahore and when he welcomed him back in Multan.


    2. ITS ONLY A GAME ENJOY (Tarun J Tejpal)

Summary : Cricket - a game of knocking the ball around. What is Cricket ? How can we define it accurately ? Truly speaking it is the hitting of a small ball around. The player walk on the playground in fancy clothes. They play the game to amuse the crowd no doubt they display their skill, strength, speed and the spirit of competition.

Cricket- a metaphor (उपमा) for life : A good match, whether Cricket or Football, is all about knocking a ball around. ITs only aim is to provide fun. No game help cure disease. No game ads to human knowledge. It doesn't unfold any secret of our stay on earth. But lovers of sports give a hundred deep meanings to sports. They compare it to life because both cal for struggle, discipline, moral values and success/ defeat. The sports scribes often write about a well contested game much more than they praise (प्रशंसा) a scientist or a scholar.
The spirit & purpose of game - to amuse and to rid us of blood lust : And it is not without reason or justification. Men need a lesson to learn on morality, on observing rules and on how to know a fair game from foul. People usually enjoy a game on the TV screen, they watch their favorite players at any risk of injury to themselves. He is a modern warrior who needs only a bottle of chilled beer and a television set in his living room to satisfy his urge for fighting. The utility of games and sports is to rid us of the our instinct for violence. But if a game generates violence it loses its purpose of providing healthy amusement and suppressing our blood thirst.

Cricket ground - not a battle field : Take the case of Indo-Pak cricket matches. They fail to provide healthy amusement. They are never played in the spirit of the game. The players on either side carry with them their national and religious hatred (घृणा). It is unfortunate because the Indians and Pakistanis are united (एकीकृत, एक से) by history and culture. They belong almost to the same racial stock, Instead of flying at each other's throat at the war front, they should enjoy the battle on the playground on their TV screen.

The duty of the media and journalists : To promote peace between the countries is our foremost need. The journalists, the politicians, the sports analysts (विश्लेषक) can play a vital role. They should not play up the issues of national honour. They can call upon the two rival teams and the players to appreciate on another's performance as good friends and true sportsmen.

No national honour or shame in victory or defeat : Sports should be treated as a means to build bridges of good-will between India and Pakistan. The press should learn to appreciate the wonderful bowling of Pakistani fast bowler Shoaib as also the hard hitting shots of Sachin Tendulkar. There is no need to be biased (पक्षपाती) in praising the best. After all a win or a defeat in a match does not involve national honour or personal shock. A game is only fun if it remains a game; and not a bloddy battle.


3. HAROUN (son) AND THE SEA OF STORIES - Salman Rushdie

Introduction to Author : Salman Rushdie happens to be Indian-born Muslim novelist. He had to spend many years in hiding because Irani Mullah Khameine issued a fatwa (धार्मिक - कानूनी आदेश) ordering his death over some passages in his book. 'The Satanie Verse.' He has an open mind. He calls upon the Muslims the world over to take Islam into the modern age, to reform it and to join the main stream. He also argues that the Koran should not be treated as perfect or 'infallible' (अचूक, कभी गलती ना करने वाला).

Detailed Summary : The saddest City in Alifbay country : It stood by a gloomy sea full of glum fishes (उदास मछली) which were uneatable. The sad city had big factories in the north. Those factories also manufactured sadness in the form of dark smoke.

Rashid Khalifa - the popular story-letter : But in the old part of the city and
ruined (खंडहर, नष्ट शहर) buildings lived a happy young fellow named Haroun (son). He was the only child of Rashid Khalifa who was well known for his cheery (मगन, मनमोहक) stories. He was a very popular figure. He could go on telling short and winding never- endint tales. This skill earned him two nicknames. His admirers called him the Ocen of Notions (काल्पनिक, खयाली) because he was stuffed with stories just as the sea was many hears proved himself a good husband. He had laughter, while his wife soraya had a sweet voice an she sang. Haroun was lucky grow up in sucha a happy home.

Trouble Approaching : But something went wrong, The family was infected by the poison of sadness, It also became as sad as the city, Soraya once stopped singing in between, Haroun
(son) guessed that there was a touble overtaking his family.

Rashid-almost a magician : Rashid was so busy in making and telling stories and could not notice changes in his wife behaviour. He was a bussy and demanding man. He drew large crowd when on stage. Poor Children old man and even stray (बिखरी एवं घुम्माकड़ लोग), cows, monkeys and parrots showed interest in his tales. Haroun often thought of his father as a juggler ( छलिया, बाजीगर, धोखेबाज).

Haroun's query about the source of Rashid's Stories : Haroun
(son) wondered where his father's stories came from. 'Rashid's (father) tales were a mixture of facts and fictions, processess, wicked (दुष्ट, पापी, उत्पति) uncles, ruffians (गुंडा, बदमाश), heroes and haunting tunes (रोचक संगीत), Haroun (son) often questioned his father (Rashid Khalifa) about the source of his stories. But he never got a straight or satisfactory reply. Father (Rashid Khalifa) only turned his eyebrows and said that he got his tales from the great Story Sea. The stories flowed from an invisible tap of water.

A Happy Family : The Rashid Khalifas lived in the ground floor a small house with pink walls, green windows, blue balconies, looks like a cake. It was neither a high rise (rich) building for rich people nor the hut of a poor. So Haroun
(son) was lucky, but luck did not last longer.

(son's) second question : Haroun was the only child, he was inquisitive (जिज्ञासु, खोजी, पूछताछ करने वाला), He want to know why his parents didn't bring to the world more children ?, the father gave no straight answer. Rashid Khalifa (The Father) never take short cut if there was a short cut available, he said that he had used up full quota of child stuff in making Haroun (son). So Haroun (son) was equal to four - five kiddies. But Soraya (Wife) gave a simpler reply. She admitted sadly that they did try to have more children but failed.

Issue less Sengupta Couple : Upstairs lived another Sentupta (neighbour) couples, Mr. Sengupta was a clerk at city corp. (नगर निगम), he was thin and miserly (कंजूस, लालची), his wife Mrs. Sengupta (Oneeta) was fat and generous (उदार, संत, दानशील), They were issueless (निसंतान, childless), as a result Oneeta (Mrs. Sengupta) Showered her affection on Haroun. She brought him sweetmeats and hugged him. Haroun, however, didn't like the touch of loose flesh. Mr. Sengupta (Oneeta) ignored Haroun. He showed interest in Soraya. He used to criticise (दोष निकलना, निंदा करना, बुरे करना) Rashid Khalifa, he always says "Life was not a story book or joke shop, so there was no use of making useless stories". Haroun began to hate Mr. Sengupta because he spoke against Rashid Khalifa.

Rashid in great demand at election : At election time leaders of various political parties aproached Rashid to amuse the audience at their rallies (रैली) with his sugary tales. People lost faith in political leaders, as liars. But people like Rashid Khalifa who never claimed that his stories were true. He admitted frankly that his stories were made up out of his own head.

Soraya Elopes (गुप्त पलायन, प्रेमी के साथ भाग जाना) with Mr. Sengupta : Once when Haroun ws returning home from school, he was caught in the first downpour of the rainy season. He saw Mrs. Oneeta standing on her upstairs balcony and crying. Inside the house, Rashid's face was also wet tearing. Bad news was that Haroun's mother, Soraya had run off with Mr. Sengupta, at 11 a.m., she had sent Rashid to Haroun's room to search for some missing socks. That was a part of her plan to get away with Sengupta in a taxi. Before eloping, she left a note reporting nasty things, Mr. Sengupta used to say about Rashid. But she ended the letter expressing her affection for Haroun.

Rashid loses his only talent of story telling : Rashid looked so pathetic (करुनाजनक), Haroun (son) also accused (अभियुक्त , मुलजिम, गुनाहगार) him of wasting his time and energy in telling untrue stories. Rshid Khalifa (Father) wept and the boy felt sorry. He wanted to get his words back, but he couldn't do that. The charge hurt Rashid Khalifa so badly that he ran out of stories altogether Haroun blamed himself for his father's loss.


The Narrator - eight year old girl - Milli